How come supposedly dexamphetamine has a duration of action of only around 3 to 6 hours, while the expensive slow release version lisdexamfetamine has a duration of action of 12 hours, but 'lisdex' is converted to 'dex' within an hour?

While, yes, it does take extra time for the body to convert it into amphetamine, it doesn't have much to do with the actual drug. This is adderall. It's comprised of 4 different amphetamine salts plus some inert binders to make it big enough to easily dispense and take. Your stomach acid will break down a pill in less than an hour. This is adderall XR. It's a 24 hour slow release. It contains pretty much the exact same mix of amphetamine salts.
However, this is what is inside an adderall XR capsule. Those beads are the magic.  For more details regarding the conference please visit:
Regards Ferruccio Steven | Program Manager | Pharmacology 2020 Larix International Pte Ltd Contact: +65 31655042 WhatsApp: +65 3158 6820 Email:

What is pharmaceutical formulation? What are the stages involved?

Pharmaceutical formulation, in pharmaceutics, is a process in which various chemical substances, along with the active drug, are mixed to produce a final medicinal product. The word formulation is often used in a way that includes the dosage form used in the making. What Are The Stages And Timeline? Formulation studies include developing a preparation of the drug which is stable as well as acceptable to the patient. This usually involves adding the drug into a tablet or a capsule for administered drugs. It is important to differentiate that a tablet contains a variety of other potentially inert substances apart from the drug itself. Further, studies have to be done to ensure that the encapsulated drug is compatible with these other substances and will not cause harm, either direct or indirect. Preformulation stage in pharma manufacturing involves the characterization of a drug's physical, chemical, and mechanical properties to choose what other ingredients or excipients should be use…

Why is pharmacology important in the field of medicine?

Pharmacology is the study of those drugs. No matter which branch of medicine you end up in, you are bound to know about drugs. It is not only about knowing where to use them, it is also about knowing where not to use them. Even surgeons need to know and optimise the pharmacotherapy of certain drugs that they routinely prescribe. So, there is no escape from this ever important field of medicine. You need to have basic knowledge of these drugs even if you are not prescribing all of them. For more details regarding the conference please visit:
Regards                            Ferruccio Steven| Program Manager | Pharmacology 2020 Larix International Pte Ltd Contact: +65 31655042 WhatsApp: +65 3158 6820 Email:

What Is Valium?

Valium is the brand name for diazepam, a benzodiazepine that is popularly prescribed to treat muscle spasms, panic disorder, anxiety and other medical conditions. In some cases, Valium is used to treat people suffering from alcohol withdrawal. Once ingested, the drug acts as a depressant in the body, calming down the central nervous system (CNS) and relaxing the mind. In decades past, this potent, long-acting drug was dubbed “mother’s little helper.” Popularly prescribed to women in the 1960s and 1970s, Valium became a tool for many women who were trying to juggle the difficulties of motherhood and marriage, and for others, the struggle of being a single parent. The Madness Network News report that 59.3 million prescriptions were written for Valium in the United States in 1974 alone. While the prescription rate for Valium is significantly lower today, the use and abuse of the substance has extended to people of all age groups, genders and socioeconomic statuses.

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What is TDM in pharmacology?

TDM or Therapeutic Drug Monitoring could also be a branch of pharmacology and clinical chemistry that concentrate on the measurement of medication concentrations in blood. Its main focuson drugs with narrow therapeutic window. As it improves patient care by adjusting the dose of drugs for shown it improve outcome in the journal on pharmacology ,demographics and clinical information and or on the process theory and measurement of the blood concentration of medicine. For more details regarding the conference please visit:

Regards                            Ferruccio Steven| Program Manager | Pharmacology 2020 Larix International Pte Ltd Contact: +65 31655042 WhatsApp: +65 3158 6820 Email:
What are the chances of absorbing drugs such as nicotine/tobacco from handling cigarettes/skin absorption?

Adolescents and youngsters who add tobacco agriculture can and do experience nicotine toxicity while harvesting, curing and handling the tobacco plant in bulk quantities. It’s called “green tobacco sickness” and it happens more frequently in countries with lower agricultural safety standards and higher child labor rates. Most tobacco is grown in countries like that, but it also can happen here within the US. Green Tobacco Sickness in Children and Adolescents It’s possible for a person of any age to absorb nicotine and experience toxicity while handling vape juice, or the liquid or salts content of other electronic nicotine deliver systems. That’s why companies that manufacter these consumer products have this type of dress code:
You can also absorb too much nicotine into your skin if you cut open a nicotine patch and get too much of that oil directly on your skin. Many people think t…
What is synergism in pharmacology?
SYNERGISMWhen the combined effect of two drugs is greater than the algebraic sum of their individual effects, it is called assynergism. It results in either potentiation of the action of the drugs or prolongation of it's therapeutic effects.
Synergism occurs when two drugs act at different sites or when one drug alters the pharmacokinetics of the other drug. Examples - Levodopa andCarbidopa (Carbidopa prevents peripheral metabolism of Levodopa allowing it's entry in brain in greater amounts).Other example is - synergistic

combination of antihypertensives like Beta
-blockers and diuretics like frusemide(they act at different sites). Another very interesting example is combination of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim , if acting individually both of them are bacteriostatic but when in combination (known as Cotrimoxazole) they become bactericidal ( you can read about them in detail in chapters dealing with Antimicrobial agents).

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